The Society for the
Study of Social Issues


April, 2014

Read the full research summary here.

Bibliography: SPSSI Research Summary on Media Violence

Craig A. Anderson, Brad J. Bushman, Edward Donnerstein, Tom. A. Hummer, & Wayne Warburton


Note: This bibliography is intended to be a representation of the primary sources used by the committee in preparing this report. References in bold typeface are general reviews.


American Academy of Pediatrics, 2009. Policy Statement—Media Violence.Pediatrics, 124, Number 5, pp. 1495-1503.

Anderson, C.A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L.R., Johnson, J., Linz, D., Malamuth, N., & Wartella, E. (2003). The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4, 81-110.

Anderson, C.A., & Dill, K.E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 772-790.

Anderson, C.A., & Gentile, D.A. (2008). Media violence, aggression, and public policy. In E. Borgida & S. Fiske (Eds.), Beyond Common Sense: Psychological Science in the Courtroom (pp. 281-300). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Anderson, C.A., Gentile, D.A., & Buckley, K.E. (2007). Violent Video Game Effects on Children and Adolescents: Theory, Research, and Public Policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Anderson, C. A., Shibuya, A., Ihori, N., Swing, E. L., Bushman, B.J., Sakamoto, A., Rothstein, H.R., & Saleem, M. (2010). Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in Eastern and Western countries. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 151-173.

Anderson, D., Bryant, J., Wilder, A., Santomero, A., Williams, M., & Crawley, A. M. (2000). Researching Blue’s Clues: Viewing behavior and impact. Media Psychology, 2, 179-194.

Bailey, K., West. R., & Anderson, C. A. (2011). The influence of video games on social, cognitive, and affective information processing. Chapter in J. Decety & J. Cacioppo (Eds.) Handbook of Social Neuroscience. (pp. 1001-1011).New York: Oxford University Press.

Bartholow, B. D., Sestir, M. A. & Davis, E. B. (2005). Correlates and consequences of exposure to videogame violence: Hostile personality, empathy and aggressive behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1573-1586.

Brown, S. J., Lieberman, D. A., Gemeny, B. A., Fan, Y. C., Wilson, D. M., & Pasta, D. J. (1997). Educational video game for juvenile diabetes: Results of a controlled trial. Medical Informatics, 22(1), 77-89.

Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2002). Violent video games and hostile expectations: A test of the general aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1679-1684.

Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2009). Comfortably numb: Desensitizing effects of violent media on helping others. Psychological Science, 20, 273-277.

Bushman, B. J. & Cantor, J. (2003). Media ratings for violence and sex: Implications for policy makers and parents. American Psychologist, 58, 130-141.

Bushman, B. J. & Huesmann, L. R. (2001).  Effects of televised violence on aggression. In D. Singer & J. Singer (Eds), Handbook of children and the media (223-254).  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Bushman, B. J. & Huesmann, L. R. (2006). Short-term and long-term effects of violent media on aggression in children and adults. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 160, 348 – 352.

Carnagey, N. L., & Anderson, C.A., Bushman, B. J. (2007). The effect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 489-496.

Chan, P. A., & Rabinowitz, T. (2006). A cross-sectional analysis of video games and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents. Annals of General Psychiatry, 5, ArtID 16. 11 pgs. doi:

Christakis, D. A., Garrison, M. M., Herrenkohl, T., Haggerty, K., Rivara, F. P., Zhou, C., & Liekweg, K. (2013). Modifying media content for preschool children: A randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. 131, 431-438.

Christakis, D. A., Zimmerman, F. J., DiGiuseppe, D. L., & McCarty, C. A. (2004). Early  television exposure and subsequent attentional problems in children. Pediatrics,  113, 708-713.

Comstock, G., & Scharrer, E. (2007). Media and the American Child. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Coyne, S. M., Nelson, D. A., Lawton, F., Haslam, S., Rooney, L., Titterington, L., …Ogunlaja, L. (2008). The effects of viewing physical and relational aggression in the media: Evidence for a cross-over effect. (Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44,  1551-1554.

DeLisi, M., Vaughn, M. G., Gentile, D. A., Anderson, C. A., & Shook, J. (2013).  Violent video games, delinquency, and youth violence: New evidence.Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 11, 132-142.doi:10.1177/1541204012460874

Dill, K. E. (Ed.) (2013). The Oxford Handbook of Media Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gentile, D. A. (2008). The rating systems for media products. In S. Calvert & B. Wilson (Eds.), The Handbook of Children, Media and Development. (pp. 527-551). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

Gentile, D. A. (2009). Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: A national study. Psychological Science, 20, 594-602.

Gentile, D. A.,Anderson, C. A., Yukawa, S., Ihori, N.,Saleem, M., Ming, L. K., Shibuya, A., Liau, A. K., Khoo, A., & Sakamoto, A. (2009). The effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behaviors: International evidence from correlational, experimental, and longitudinal studies. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35,752-763.

Gentile, D. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2012). Reassessing media violence effects using a risk and resilience approach to understanding aggression. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 1, 138-151. doi: 10.1037/a0028481

Gentile, D. A., Humphrey, J. & Walsh, D. A. (2005). Media ratings for movies, music, video games, and television: A review of the research and recommendations for improvements. Adolescent Medicine Clinics, 16, 427-446.

Gentile, D. G., Li, D., Khoo, A., Prot, S., & Anderson, C. A. (2014). Practice, Thinking, and Action: Mediators and Moderators of Long-term Violent Video Game Effects on Aggressive Behavior. JAMA Pediatrics,Published online March 24, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.63

Gentile, D. A., Maier, J.A., Hasson, M. R., & de Bonnetti, B. L. (2011). Parents’ evaluation of media ratings a decade after the television ratings were introduced. Pediatrics, 128, 36-44.

Gentile, D.A., Saleem, M., & Anderson, C.A. (2007). Public policy and the effects of media violence on children. Social Issues and Policy Review,1, 15-61.

Gentile, D. A., Swing, E. L., Anderson, C. A., Rinker, D., & Thomas, K. M.  (in press). Differential neural recruitment during violent video game play in violent and nonviolent game players. Psychology of Popular Media Culture,

Gentile, D. A., Swing, E.L., Lim, C.G., Khoo, A. (2012). Video game playing, attention problems, and impulsiveness: Evidence of bidirectional causality.Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 1, 62-70.

Graber, J. A., Nichols, T., Lynne, S. D., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Botvin, G. J. (2006). A longitudinal examination of family, friend, and media influences on competent versus problem behaviors among urban minority youth.  Applied Developmental Science, 10,  75-85.

Greitemeyer, T. (2011). Effects of prosocial media on social behavior: When and why does media exposure affect helping and aggression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 251-255.

Huesmann, L. R., Eron, L. D., Klein, R., Brice, P., & Fischer, P. (1983). Mitigating the imitation of aggressive behaviors by changing children's attitudes about media violence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 899-910.

Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C. L. & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children's exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992. Developmental Psychology, 39, 201-221.

Hummer, T. A., Wang, Y., Kronenberger, W. G., Mosier, K. M., Kalnin, A. J., Dunn, D. W., & Mathews, V. P. (2010). Short-term violent video game play by adolescents alters prefrontal activity during cognitive inhibition, Media Psychology, 13, 136-154.

Hummer, T. A. (2012). Effects of Violent Video Game Play and Working Memory Training on Fronto-Parietal Brain Activity.Symposium presentation at the 24th Annual Convention of the Association for Psychological Science, May 24-27, 2012, Chicago, Illinois.

ISRA Media Violence Commission, 2012. Report of the Media Violence Commission. Aggressive Behavior,38,pp. 335–341.

Kato, P.M., Cole, S.W., Bradlyn, A.S., & Pollock, B.H. (2008). A video game improves behavioral outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: A randomized trial. Pediatrics, 122, 305-317.

Krahé, B., & Möller, I., (2010). Longitudinal effects of media violence on aggression and empathy among German adolescents. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31, 401-409.

Kronenberger, W. G., Mathews, V. P., Dunn, D. W., Wang, Y., Wood, E. A., Giauque, A. L., et al. (2005). Media violence exposure and executive functioning in aggressive and control adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 725-737.

Konijn, E. A., Bijvank, M. N., & Bushman, B. J. (2007). I Wish I Were a Warrior: The Role of Wishful Identification in the Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggression in Adolescent Boys. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1038-1044.

Lenhart, A., Kahne, J., Middaugh, E., Macgill, A. R., Evans, C., & Vitak, J. (2008). Teens' Video Games, and Civics. Washington D.C.: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Downloaded July 5, 2010 from      

Leyens, J. P., Camino, L., Parke, R. D., & Berkowitz, L. (1975). Effects of movie violence on aggression in a field setting as a function of group dominance and cohesion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(2), 346.

Linder, J. R., & Gentile, D. A. (2009). Is the television rating system valid?  Indirect, verbal, and physical aggression in programs viewed. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 286-297.

Linebarger, D. L. & Walker, D. (2005). Infants’ and toddlers’ television viewing and language outcomes. American Behavioral Scientist, 48, 624–625.

Martins, N. (2013). Televised relational and physical aggression and children's hostile intent attributions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116, 945-952.

Mathews, V. P., Kronenberger, W. G., Wang, Y., Lurito, J. T., Lowe, M. J., & Dunn, D. W. (2005). Media violence exposure and frontal lobe activation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in aggressive and nonaggressive adolescents. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 29, 287-292.

Möller, I., & Krahé, B. (2009). Exposure to violent video games and aggression in German adolescents: A Longitudinal analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 35,75-89.

Murphy, R. F., Penuel, W. R., Means, B., Korbak, C., Whaley, A., & Allen, J. E. (2002). E-DESK: A review of recent evidence on the effectiveness of discrete educational software. (Prepared for: Planning and Evaluation Service, U. S. Department of Education.) SRI International.

Paik, H. & Comstock, G. (1994). The effects of television violence on antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis. Communication Research, 12, 516-546.

Prot, S., & Anderson, C. A. (2013). Research methods, design, and statistics in media psychology. Chapter in K. Dill (Ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Media Psychology (109-136). New York: Oxford University Press.

Prot, S., Anderson, C. A., Gentile, D. A., Brown, S. C., & Swing, E. L. (in press). The positive and negative effects of video game play. Chapter in A. Jordan & D. Romer (Eds.) Children and Media.

Rideout, V. J., Foehr, U. G., & Roberts, D. F. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8-18 year olds. Merlo Park CA: Henry J Kaiser Foundation.

Rosenthal, R. (1986). Media violence, antisocial behavior, and the social consequences of small effects. Journal of Social Issues, 42, 141-154.

Sharif, I., & Sargent, J. D. (2006). Association between television, movie, and video game exposure and school performance. Pediatrics, 11 8(4), e1061–1070.

Singer, D.G., & Singer, J.L. (Eds.). 2012 Handbook of Children and the Media, 2nd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Singhal, A., Cody, M. J., Rogers, E. M., & Sabido, M. (2004). Entertainment-Education and social change: History, research, and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Smith, D. (2002). The theory heard 'round the world. APA Monitor, 33, (9), 30. Downloaded on June 7, 2013 from:

Smith, D. (2002). The theory heard 'round the world. APA Monitor, 33, (9), 30. Downloaded on June 7, 2013 from:

Strasburger, V. C., Wilson, B. J., & Jordan, A. B. (2013). Children, Adolescents, and the Media, 3nd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior. (1972). Television and growing up: The impact of televised violence. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Swing., E. S., & Anderson, C.A. (2012). Video game playing and links to attention problems, proactive cognitive control, and visual attention. Symposium presentation at the 24th Annual Convention of the Association for Psychological Science, May 24-27, 2012, Chicago, Illinois.

Swing, E. L., Gentile, D. A., Anderson, C. A., & Walsh, D. A. (2010). Television and video game exposure and the development of attention problems. Pediatrics, 126, 214-221.

Thompson, K. M. & Haninger, K. (2001). Violence in E-rated video games. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286, 591-598.

Thompson, K. N., & Schumacker, R. E. (1997). An evaluation of Rosenthal and Rubin’s binomial effect size display. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 22(1), 109-117.

Thompson, K. M., Tepichin, K. & Haninger, K. (2006). Content and ratings of mature-rated video games. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 160, 402-410.

Warburton, W. A., & Braunstein, D. [Eds.]. (2012). Growing up fast and furious: Reviewing the impact of violent and sexualised media on children. Sydney: The Federation Press.

Weis, R., & Cerankosky, B. C. (2010). Effects of video-game ownership on young boys' academic and behavioral functioning: A randomized, controlled study. Psychological Science, 21, 463-470.

Ybarra, M. L., Mitchell, K. J., Hamburger, M., Diener-West, M., & Leaf, P. J. (2011). X-Rated Material and Perpetration of Sexually Aggressive Behavior Among Children and Adolescents: Is There a Link? Aggressive Behavior 37, 1-18.


Research that produces nothing but books will not suffice.
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