The Use of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhumane, or Degrading Treatment as Interrogation Devices
by Mark Costanzo, Ellen Gerrity, and M. Brinton Lykes
American Psychiatric Association. (1985). Against Torture Joint Resolution of the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association Position Statement. Retrieved May 7, 2006 from www.psych.org/edu/other_res/lib_archives/archives/198506.pdf
American Psychological Association (1986). Resolution Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment. Retrieved May 7, 2006 from www.apa.org/about/division/cpminternatl.html
American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code Of Conduct. Retrieved May 7, 2006 from www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html
American Psychological Association. (2005). Presidential Task Force on Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS). Retrieved May 7, 2006 from www.apa.org/releases/PENSTaskForceReportFinal.pdf
Amnesty International. (2006). Amnesty International Report 2006: The state of the world’s human rights. London.
Anckermann, S., Dominguez, M., Soto, N., Kjaerulf, F., Berliner, P., & Mikkelsen, E.N. (2005). Psycho-social support to large numbers of traumatized people in post-conflict societies: An approach to community development in Guatemala. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 15(2), 136-152.
Army Regulation-15 (2005). Investigation into FBI Allegations of Detainee Abuse at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba Detention Facility. Retrieved May 7, 2006 from www.defenselink.mil/news/Jul2005/d20050714report.pdf
Astrom, C., Lunde, I., Ortmann, J., & Boysen, G. (1989). Sleep disturbances in torture survivors. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 79, 150-154.
Basoglu, M., Jaranson, J.M., Mollica, R., & Kastrup, M. (2001). Torture and mental health: A research overview. In E. Gerrity, T.M. Keane, & F. Tuma (Eds.), The mental health consequences of torture (pp. 35-62). NY: Kluwer.
Basoglu, M., Livanou, M., Crnobaric, C., Franciskovic, T., Suljic, E., Duric, D., & Vranesic, M. (2005). Psychiatric and cognitive effects of war in former Yugoslavia. Journal of the American Medical Association, 294(5), 580-590.
Bradley, L., & Tawfiq, N. (2006). The physical and psychological effects of torture in Kurds seeking asylum in the United Kingdom. Torture, 16(1), 41-47.
Bremner, J.D., Randall, P., Scott, T.M., Bronen, R.A., Seibyl, J.P., Southwick, S.M., Delaney, R.C., McCarthy, G., Charney, D.S., & Innis, R.B. (1995). MRI-based measurement of hippocampal volume in patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 973-981.
Charney, D.S., Deutch, A., & Krystal, J. (1993). Psychobiological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 294-350.
Center for Human Rights and Global Justice at NYU, School of Law, Human Rights Watch and Human Rights First (April, 2006). By the Numbers: Findings of the Detainee Abuse and Accountability Project, VOLUME 18, NO. 2(G). Retrieved May 7, 2006, from http://hrw.org/reports/2006/ct0406/ct0406webwcover.pdf
Conroy, J. (2000). Unspeakable acts, ordinary people. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Costanzo, M. & Leo, R.A. (2007). Research and expert testimony on interrogations and confessions. In M. Costanzo, D. Krauss, and K. Pezdek (Eds.), Expert psychological testimony for the courts. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Daud, A., Skoglund, E., & Rydelius, P. (2005). Children in families of torture victims: transgenerational transmission of parents’ traumatic experiences to their children. International Journal of Social Welfare, 14(1), 22-32.
Dershowitz, A.M. (2003). Why terrorism works: Understanding the threat, responding to the challenge. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Drizin, S. A., & Leo, R. A. (2004). The problem of false confessions in the post-DNA world. North Carolina Law Review, 82, 891-1007.
Dovidio, J.F. & Gaertner, S.L. (1997). On the nature of contemporary prejudice: The causes, consequences and challenges of aversive racism. In J.L. Eberhardt & S.T. Fiske (Eds.) Racism: The problem and the response (pp.211-232) Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and of Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1989) at www.umn.edu/humanrts/euro/z34eurotort.html).
Falk, R., Gendzier, I., & Lifton, R.J. (Eds). (2006). Crimes of war: Iraq. NY: Avalon Publishing Group.
Fay Report: Investigation of Intelligence Activities At Abu Ghraib: Executive Summary; AR 15-6 Investigation of the Abu Ghraib Prison and 205th Military Intelligence Brigade, LTG Anthony R. Jones; AR 15-6 Investigation of the Abu Ghraib Detention Facility and 205th Military Intelligence Brigade, MG George R. Fay. (2004) Retrieved May 7, 2006 from http://fl1.findlaw.com/news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/dod/fay82504rpt.pdf
Friedman, M.J., Charney, D.S., & Deutch, A.Y. (Eds.). (1995). Neurobiological and clinical consequences of stress: From normal adaptation to post-traumatic stress disorder. Philadelphia: Lippincott Raven.
Garrido, E., Masip,. J., & Herrero, C. (2004). Police officers’ credibility judgments: Accuracy and estimated ability. International Journal of Psychology, 39, 254-275.
Gauthier, J. (2005). Toward a Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists: A Progress Report. In M.J. Stevens & D. Wedding (Eds.). Psychology: IUPsyS Global Resource. Hove, UK: Psychology Press. Retrieved May 1, 2005 from www.am.org/iupsys/ethprog1.pdf
Geneva Conventions Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War and on the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1949) at http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/full/380.
Gerrity, E.T., Keane, T. M., & Tuma, F. (Eds). (2001). The mental health consequences of torture. NY: Kluwer.
Gibson, J.T. (1990). Factors contributing to the creation of a torturer. In P. Suedfeld Psychology and torture. Washington, DC: Hemisphere. (Chapter 5).
Gurvits, T.G., Shenton, M.R., Hokama, H., Ohta, H., Lasko, N.B., Gilberson, M.W., Orr, S.P., Kikinis, R., Lolesz, F.A., McCarley, R.W., & Pitman, R.K. (1996). Magnetic resonance imaging study of hippocampal volume in chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 40, 192-199.
Haney, C., Banks, C., & Zimbardo, P. (1973). Impersonal dynamics in a simulated prison. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 1, 69-97.
Haritos-Fatouros, M. (2002). Psychological origins of institutionalized torture. NY: Routledge.
Inbau, F. E., Reid, J. E., Buckley, J. P., & Jayne, B. C. (2001). Criminal interrogation and confessions (4th ed.). Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.
Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992). Shattered assumptions. NY: Free Press.
Kassin, S. M., & Fong, C. T. (1999). “I’m innocent!” Effects of training on judgments of truth and deception in the interrogation room. Law and Human Behavior, 23, 499-516.
Kassin, S. M., Goldstein, C. J., & Savitsky, K. (2003). Behavioral confirmation in the interrogation room: On the dangers of presuming guilt. Law and Human Behavior, 27, 187-203.
Kassin, S. & Gudjonsson, G.H. (2004). The psychology of confessions: a review of the literature and issues. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5, 33-67.
Lagos, D., & Kordon, D. (1996). Psychological effects of political repression and impunity in Argentina. Torture, 6, 54-56.
Lerner, M.J., & Miller, D. (1978). Just world research and the attribution process: Looking back and ahead. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 1030-1051.
Lifton, R.J. (1986). The Nazi doctors. Medical killing and the psychology of genocide. NY: Basic Books.
Lifton, R.J. (2004). Doctors and torture. New England Journal of Medicine, 351(5): 415-416.
Lifton, R.J, & Olson, O. (1976). Human meaning of total disaster. Psychiatry, 39, 1-18.
Masip, J., Alonso, H., Garrido, E., & Anton, C. (2005). Generalized Communicative Suspicion (GCS) among police officers: Accounting for the investigator bias effect. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 1046-1066.
Mayer, J. (2005). The Gitmo Experiment. Retrieved April 3, 2006, from www.newyorker.com
Meissner, C. A., & Kassin, S. M. (2002). "He's guilty!": Investigator bias in judgments of truth and deception. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 469-480.
Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority: An experimental view. New York: Harper & Row.
Mollica, R.F., McInnes, K., Poole, C., & Tor, S. (1998). Does-effect relationships of trauma to symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Cambodian survivors of mass violence. British Journal of Psychiatry, 17, 482-488.
Neumann, E., & Monasterio, H. (1991, November). Impunity: A symbiotic element of terror. Paper presented at the 3rd International Conference on Health, Political Repression and Human Rights, Santiago, Chile.
Ortiz, Sr. Dianna. (2001). The survivors’ perspective: Voices from the center. In E. Gerrity, T.M. Keane, & F. Tuma (Eds.), The mental health consequences of torture (pp. 13-34). NY: Kluwer.
Ortiz, Sr. Dianna, with Davis, P. (2002). The blindfold’s eyes: My journey from torture to truth. NY: Orbis Books.
Physicians for Human Rights. (2005). Break them down: Systematic use of psychological torture by US forces. Cambridge, MA: PHR.
Physicians for Human Rights. (1998). Human rights and health: The legacy of apartheid. Washington, DC: Author.
Quiroga, J., & Jaranson, J.M. (2005). Politically-motivated torture and its survivors: A desk study review of the literature. Torture, 16(2-3).
Roht-Arriaza, N. (1995). Punishment, redress, and pardon: theoretical and psychological approaches. In N. Roht-Arriaza (Ed.), Impunity and human rights in international law and practice (pp. 13-23). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Ross, L. & Nisbett, R.E. (1991). The person and the situation. NY: McGraw-Hill.
Scarry, E. (1985). The body in pain. Oxford University Press.
Silove, D.M., Steel, Z., McGorry, P.D., Miles, V., & Drobny, J. (2002). The impact of torture on post-traumatic stress symptoms in war-affected Tamil refugees and immigrants. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 43, 49-55.
Sinclair, C. (July, 2005). The roots of ethical principles and values in codes of ethics. In J. Pettifor (Chair), Cultural implications for a universal declaration of ethical principle. Symposium, Ninth European Congress of Psychology, Granada, Spain
Southwick, S., & Friedman, M.J. (2001). Neurobiological models of posttraumatic stress disorder. In E. Gerrity, T.M. Keane, & F. Tuma (Eds.), The mental health consequences of torture (pp. 73-87). NY: Kluwer.
Thapa, S.B., Van Ommeren, M., Sharma, B., DeJong, J.T., & Hauff, E. (2003). Psychiatric disability among torture Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 2032-2037.
Turner, S. (Spring 2004). Emotional reactions to torture and organized state violence. The National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: PTSD Research Quarterly, 15(2), 1-7.
Turner, S.W., & Gorst-Unsworth, C. (1990). Psychological sequelae of torture: A descriptive model. British Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 475-480.
United Nations. (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved May 7, 2006 from www.un.org/Overview/rights.html.
United Nations. (1966). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Retrieved May 7, 2006 from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm.
United Nations. (1982). Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the Role of Health Personnel, particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Retrieved May 7, 2006 from www.unesco.ru/files/docs/shs/med_ethics_principles_eng.pdf
United Nations. (1984, 1987). Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Retrieved May 7, 2006 from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cat.htm.
United Nations. (1999). Manual on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Istanbul Protocol). Retrieved May 7, 2006 from http://www.pharos.nl/uploads/_site_1/Pdf/Documenten/istanbul%20protocol.pdf
United States Congress. (1984) S.J.RES.320 : A joint resolution regarding the implementation of the policy of the United States Government in opposition to the practice of torture by any foreign government. Retrieved May 7, 2006 from thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/?&Db=d098&querybd=@FIELD(FLD004+@4((@1(Sen+Proxmire++William))+01419))
Vrij, A. (2004). Why professionals fail to catch liars and how they can improve. Legal and Criminal Psychology, 9, 159-181.
Wagner, G., & Rasmussen, O.V. (1983). Torturers. London: Amnesty International.
Waller, J. (2002). Becoming evil: How ordinary people commit genocide and mass killing. NY: Oxford University Press.
World Medical Association. (1975). Declaration of Tokyo: Guidelines for Medical Doctors concerning Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in relation to Detention and Imprisonment. Retrieved May 7, 2006 from www.cirp.org/library/ethics/tokyo/
Yehuda, R., Engel, S.M., Brand, S.R., Seckl, J., Marcus, S.M., & Berkowitz, G. (2005). Transgenerational effects of posttraumatic stress disorder in babies of mothers exposed to the World Trade Center attacks during pregnancy. Journal of Clincial Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90(7), 4115-4118.
SPSSI Central Office | 208 I Street NE Washington, DC 20002 | (202) 675-6956 | 888-310-7778 (toll free)